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Stainless Steel Chemical Compatibility Chart

Please Note: The information in this chart has been supplied by reputable sources and is to be used ONLY as a guide in selecting equipment for appropriate chemical compatibility. ALWAYS test your equipment under the specific conditions of your application before permanent installation.
Ratings of chemical behavior listed in this chart apply at a 48-hr exposure period. We have no knowledge of possible effects beyond this period. We do not warrant (neither express nor implied) that the information in this chart is accurate or complete or that any material is suitable for any purpose.

Chemical Compatibility
Acetaldehyde A-Excellent
Acetamide B-Good
Acetate Solvent A-Excellent
Acetic Acid D-Severe Effect
Acetic Acid 20% B-Good
Acetic Acid 80% D-Severe Effect
Acetic Acid, Glacial C-Fair
Acetic Anhydride B-Good
Acetone A-Excellent
Acetyl Bromide N/A
Acetyl Chloride (dry) A-Excellent
Acetylene A-Excellent
Acrylonitrile A1-Excellent
Adipic Acid A1-Excellent
Alcohols: Amyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Benzyl B-Good
Alcohols: Butyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Diacetone A-Excellent
Alcohols: Ethyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Hexyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Isobutyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Isopropyl B-Good
Alcohols: Methyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Octyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Propyl A-Excellent
Aluminum Chloride B-Good
Aluminum Chloride 20% D-Severe Effect
Aluminum Fluoride D-Severe Effect
Aluminum Hydroxide A1-Excellent
Aluminum Nitrate A-Excellent
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate 10% A-Excellent
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate 100% D-Severe Effect
Aluminum Sulfate B-Good
Alums N/A
Amines A-Excellent
Ammonia 10% A-Excellent
Ammonia Nitrate A-Excellent
Ammonia, anhydrous A-Excellent
Ammonia, liquid B2-Good
Ammonium Acetate B-Good
Ammonium Bifluoride D-Severe Effect
Ammonium Carbonate B-Good
Ammonium Caseinate N/A
Ammonium Chloride C-Fair
Ammonium Hydroxide A1-Excellent
Ammonium Nitrate A1-Excellent
Ammonium Oxalate A-Excellent
Ammonium Persulfate A-Excellent
Ammonium Phosphate, Dibasic B-Good
Ammonium Phosphate, Monobasic B-Good
Ammonium Phosphate, Tribasic B-Good
Ammonium Sulfate B-Good
Ammonium Sulfite B-Good
Ammonium Thiosulfate N/A
Amyl Acetate A1-Excellent
Amyl Alcohol A-Excellent
Amyl Chloride A2-Excellent
Aniline A-Excellent
Aniline Hydrochloride D-Severe Effect
Antifreeze N/A
Antimony Trichloride D-Severe Effect
Aqua Regia (80% HCl, 20% HNO3) D-Severe Effect
Arochlor 1248 B-Good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons N/A
Arsenic Acid A2-Excellent
Arsenic Salts N/A
Asphalt B-Good
Barium Carbonate B1-Good
Barium Chloride A1-Excellent
Barium Cyanide A1-Excellent
Barium Hydroxide B1-Good
Barium Nitrate B1-Good
Barium Sulfate B1-Good
Barium Sulfide B1-Good
Beer A-Excellent
Beet Sugar Liquids A-Excellent
Benzaldehyde B-Good
Benzene B-Good
Benzene Sulfonic Acid B-Good
Benzoic Acid B-Good
Benzol A1-Excellent
Benzonitrile D-Severe Effect
Benzyl Chloride C1-Fair
Bleaching Liquors N/A
Borax (Sodium Borate) A-Excellent
Boric Acid B2-Good
Brewery Slop N/A
Bromine D-Severe Effect
Butadiene A-Excellent
Butane A2-Excellent
Butanol (Butyl Alcohol) A-Excellent
Butter C-Fair
Buttermilk A-Excellent
Butyl Amine N/A
Butyl Ether N/A
Butyl Phthalate B1-Good
Butylacetate B-Good
Butylene A-Excellent
Butyric Acid B2-Good
Calcium Bisulfate N/A
Calcium Bisulfide B-Good
Calcium Bisulfite B-Good
Calcium Carbonate A1-Excellent
Calcium Chlorate N/A
Calcium Chloride C2-Fair
Calcium Hydroxide B1-Good
Calcium Hypochlorite C1-Fair
Calcium Nitrate C1-Fair
Calcium Oxide A-Excellent
Calcium Sulfate B-Good
Calgon A-Excellent
Cane Juice A-Excellent
Carbolic Acid (Phenol) B-Good
Carbon Bisulfide A-Excellent
Carbon Dioxide (dry) A-Excellent
Carbon Dioxide (wet) A-Excellent
Carbon Disulfide A1-Excellent
Carbon Monoxide A-Excellent
Carbon Tetrachloride B-Good
Carbon Tetrachloride (dry) B-Good
Carbon Tetrachloride (wet) A2-Excellent
Carbonated Water A-Excellent
Carbonic Acid A1-Excellent
Catsup A-Excellent
Chloric Acid D-Severe Effect
Chlorinated Glue N/A
Chlorine (dry) A1-Excellent
Chlorine Water C-Fair
Chlorine, Anhydrous Liquid C1-Fair
Chloroacetic Acid B1-Good
Chlorobenzene (Mono) A-Excellent
Chlorobromomethane N/A
Chloroform A-Excellent
Chlorosulfonic Acid D-Severe Effect
Chocolate Syrup A-Excellent
Chromic Acid 10% B-Good
Chromic Acid 30% B2-Good
Chromic Acid 5% B-Good
Chromic Acid 50% C-Fair
Chromium Salts N/A
Cider A-Excellent
Citric Acid B1-Good
Citric Oils A-Excellent
Cloroxr (Bleach) A-Excellent
Coffee A-Excellent
Copper Chloride D-Severe Effect
Copper Cyanide B-Good
Copper Fluoborate D-Severe Effect
Copper Nitrate A-Excellent
Copper Sulfate>5% B-Good
Copper Sulfate 5% B-Good
Cream A-Excellent
Cresols A2-Excellent
Cresylic Acid A1-Excellent
Cupric Acid D-Severe Effect
Cyanic Acid A-Excellent
Cyclohexane A1-Excellent
Cyclohexanone A1-Excellent
Detergents A1-Excellent
Diacetone Alcohol B1-Good
Dichlorobenzene N/A
Dichloroethane B-Good
Diesel Fuel A1-Excellent
Diethyl Ether B1-Good
Diethylamine A-Excellent
Diethylene Glycol A1-Excellent
Dimethyl Aniline B2-Good
Dimethyl Formamide A-Excellent
Diphenyl B-Good
Diphenyl Oxide B1-Good
Dyes A-Excellent
Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate) A-Excellent
Ethane A-Excellent
Ethanol A-Excellent
Ethanolamine A-Excellent
Ether A-Excellent
Ethyl Acetate B-Good
Ethyl Benzoate N/A
Ethyl Chloride A-Excellent
Ethyl Ether B-Good
Ethyl Sulfate D-Severe Effect
Ethylene Bromide A-Excellent
Ethylene Chloride B-Good
Ethylene Chlorohydrin B-Good
Ethylene Diamine B1-Good
Ethylene Dichloride B-Good
Ethylene Glycol B-Good
Ethylene Oxide B-Good
Fatty Acids B-Good
Ferric Chloride D-Severe Effect
Ferric Nitrate B-Good
Ferric Sulfate B1-Good
Ferrous Chloride D-Severe Effect
Ferrous Sulfate B-Good
Fluoboric Acid B-Good
Fluorine C-Fair
Fluosilicic Acid C-Fair
Formaldehyde 100% C-Fair
Formaldehyde 40% A1-Excellent
Formic Acid B1-Good
Freon 113 N/A
Freon 12 B1-Good
Freon 22 A-Excellent
Freon TF A-Excellent
Freonr 11 A-Excellent
Fruit Juice A-Excellent
Fuel Oils A-Excellent
Furan Resin A1-Excellent
Furfural A-Excellent
Gallic Acid A-Excellent
Gasoline (high-aromatic) A-Excellent
Gasoline, leaded, ref. A1-Excellent
Gasoline, unleaded A1-Excellent
Gelatin A2-Excellent
Glucose A1-Excellent
Glue, P.V.A. A1-Excellent
Glycerin A2-Excellent
Glycolic Acid A-Excellent
Gold Monocyanide A-Excellent
Grape Juice A-Excellent
Grease N/A
Heptane A-Excellent
Hexane A-Excellent
Honey A-Excellent
Hydraulic Oil (Petro) A-Excellent
Hydraulic Oil (Synthetic) A-Excellent
Hydrazine A-Excellent
Hydrobromic Acid 100% D-Severe Effect
Hydrobromic Acid 20% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid 100% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid 20% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid 37% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid, Dry Gas D-Severe Effect
Hydrocyanic Acid B1-Good
Hydrocyanic Acid (Gas 10%) N/A
Hydrofluoric Acid 100% B1-Good
Hydrofluoric Acid 20% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluoric Acid 50% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluoric Acid 75% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluosilicic Acid 100% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluosilicic Acid 20% C2-Fair
Hydrogen Gas A-Excellent
Hydrogen Peroxide 10% B2-Good
Hydrogen Peroxide 100% B2-Good
Hydrogen Peroxide 30% B2-Good
Hydrogen Peroxide 50% B2-Good
Hydrogen Sulfide (aqua) C-Fair
Hydrogen Sulfide (dry) C1-Fair
Hydroquinone B-Good
Hydroxyacetic Acid 70% N/A
Ink C-Fair
Iodine D-Severe Effect
Iodine (in alcohol) N/A
Iodoform A-Excellent
Isooctane A1-Excellent
Isopropyl Acetate C-Fair
Isopropyl Ether A-Excellent
Isotane N/A
Jet Fuel (JP3, JP4, JP5) A-Excellent
Kerosene A-Excellent
Ketones A-Excellent
Lacquer Thinners A1-Excellent
Lacquers A1-Excellent
Lactic Acid B1-Good
Lard A-Excellent
Latex A2-Excellent
Lead Acetate B-Good
Lead Nitrate B1-Good
Lead Sulfamate C-Fair
Ligroin N/A
Lime A-Excellent
Linoleic Acid B-Good
Lithium Chloride A1-Excellent
Lithium Hydroxide B-Good
Lubricants A2-Excellent
Lye: Ca(OH)2 Calcium Hydroxide B1-Good
Lye: KOH Potassium Hydroxide B-Good
Lye: NaOH Sodium Hydroxide B-Good
Magnesium Bisulfate A1-Excellent
Magnesium Carbonate B-Good
Magnesium Chloride D-Severe Effect
Magnesium Hydroxide B-Good
Magnesium Nitrate B-Good
Magnesium Oxide A-Excellent
Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salts) A-Excellent
Maleic Acid A-Excellent
Maleic Anhydride A-Excellent
Malic Acid A-Excellent
Manganese Sulfate B-Good
Mash A-Excellent
Mayonnaise C-Fair
Melamine N/A
Mercuric Chloride (dilute) D-Severe Effect
Mercuric Cyanide C-Fair
Mercurous Nitrate A1-Excellent
Mercury A-Excellent
Methane A-Excellent
Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) A-Excellent
Methyl Acetate A-Excellent
Methyl Acetone A-Excellent
Methyl Acrylate A-Excellent
Methyl Alcohol 10% A-Excellent
Methyl Bromide A-Excellent
Methyl Butyl Ketone A-Excellent
Methyl Cellosolve B-Good
Methyl Chloride A-Excellent
Methyl Dichloride N/A
Methyl Ethyl Ketone A-Excellent
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide N/A
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone B-Good
Methyl Isopropyl Ketone A-Excellent
Methyl Methacrylate B-Good
Methylamine A-Excellent
Methylene Chloride B-Good
Milk A-Excellent
Mineral Spirits A-Excellent
Molasses A-Excellent
Monochloroacetic acid A1-Excellent
Monoethanolamine A-Excellent
Morpholine N/A
Motor oil A1-Excellent
Mustard A-Excellent
Naphtha A-Excellent
Naphthalene A-Excellent
Natural Gas A-Excellent
Nickel Chloride D-Severe Effect
Nickel Nitrate B-Good
Nickel Sulfate B-Good
Nitrating Acid (<15% HNO3) C-Fair
Nitrating Acid (>15% H2SO4) C-Fair
Nitrating Acid (S1% Acid) C-Fair
Nitrating Acid (S15% H2SO4) C-Fair
Nitric Acid (20%) A-Excellent
Nitric Acid (50%) A2-Excellent
Nitric Acid (5-10%) A-Excellent
Nitric Acid (Concentrated) A1-Excellent
Nitrobenzene B-Good
Nitrogen Fertilizer N/A
Nitromethane A-Excellent
Nitrous Acid B-Good
Nitrous Oxide B-Good
Oils: Aniline A-Excellent
Oils: Anise N/A
Oils: Bay N/A
Oils: Bone N/A
Oils: Castor A-Excellent
Oils: Cinnamon A-Excellent
Oils: Citric A-Excellent
Oils: Clove A-Excellent
Oils: Coconut A-Excellent
Oils: Cod Liver A-Excellent
Oils: Corn A-Excellent
Oils: Cottonseed A-Excellent
Oils: Creosote B-Good
Oils: Diesel Fuel Oil (20, 30, 40, 50) A-Excellent
Oils: Fuel Oil (1, 2, 3, 5A, 5B, 6) A-Excellent
Oils: Ginger D-Severe Effect
Oils: Hydraulic Oil (Petro) A-Excellent
Oils: Hydraulic Oil (Synthetic) A-Excellent
Oils: Lemon A-Excellent
Oils: Linseed A-Excellent
Oils: Mineral A-Excellent
Oils: Olive A-Excellent
Oils: Orange A-Excellent
Oils: Palm A-Excellent
Oils: Peanut A-Excellent
Oils: Peppermint A-Excellent
Oils: Pine A-Excellent
Oils: Rapeseed A-Excellent
Oils: Rosin A1-Excellent
Oils: Sesame Seed A-Excellent
Oils: Silicone A-Excellent
Oils: Soybean A-Excellent
Oils: Sperm (whale) A-Excellent
Oils: Tanning A-Excellent
Oils: Transformer A-Excellent
Oils: Turbine A-Excellent
Oleic Acid A-Excellent
Oleum 100% A-Excellent
Oleum 25% B2-Good
Oxalic Acid (cold) B-Good
Ozone B-Good
Palmitic Acid B1-Good
Paraffin A-Excellent
Pentane C-Fair
Perchloric Acid C-Fair
Perchloroethylene B-Good
Petrolatum A-Excellent
Petroleum A1-Excellent
Phenol (10%) B-Good
Phenol (Carbolic Acid) B-Good
Phosphoric Acid (>40%) D-Severe Effect
Phosphoric Acid (crude) D-Severe Effect
Phosphoric Acid (molten) N/A
Phosphoric Acid (S40%) D-Severe Effect
Phosphoric Acid Anhydride N/A
Phosphorus A2-Excellent
Phosphorus Trichloride A1-Excellent
Photographic Developer A-Excellent
Photographic Solutions D-Severe Effect
Phthalic Acid B2-Good
Phthalic Anhydride A-Excellent
Picric Acid B-Good
Plating Solutions, Antimony Plating 130°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions, Arsenic Plating 110°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Brass): High-Speed Brass Bath 110°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Brass): Regular Brass Bath 100°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Bronze): Cu-Cd Bronze Bath R.T. A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Bronze): Cu-Sn Bronze Bath 160°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Bronze): Cu-Zn Bronze Bath 100°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Cadmium): Cyanide Bath 90°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Cadmium): Fluoborate Bath 100°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Barrel Chrome Bath 95°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Black Chrome Bath 115°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Chromic-Sulfuric Bath 130°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Fluoride Bath 130°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Fluosilicate Bath 95°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Acid): Copper Fluoborate Bath 120°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Acid): Copper Sulfate Bath R.T. N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Cyanide): Copper Strike Bath 120°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Cyanide): High-Speed Bath 180°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Cyanide): Rochelle Salt Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Misc): Copper (Electroless) N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Misc): Copper Pyrophosphate N/A
Plating Solutions (Gold): Acid 75°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Gold): Cyanide 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Gold): Neutral 75°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Indium Sulfamate Plating R.T. N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Ferrous Am Sulfate Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Ferrous Chloride Bath 190°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Ferrous Sulfate Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Fluoborate Bath 145°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Sulfamate 140°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Sulfate-Chloride Bath 160°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Lead Fluoborate Plating N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Electroless 200°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Fluoborate 100-170°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): High-Chloride 130-160°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Sulfamate 100-140°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Watts Type 115-160°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Rhodium) 120°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Silver) 80-120°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Tin-Fluoborate Plating 100°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Tin-Lead Plating 100°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Acid Chloride 140°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Acid Fluoborate Bath R.T. N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Acid Sulfate Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Alkaline Cyanide Bath R.T. N/A
Potash (Potassium Carbonate) B-Good
Potassium Bicarbonate B-Good
Potassium Bromide B-Good
Potassium Chlorate B1-Good
Potassium Chloride B1-Good
Potassium Chromate B1-Good
Potassium Cyanide Solutions B1-Good
Potassium Dichromate B-Good
Potassium Ferricyanide B1-Good
Potassium Ferrocyanide B-Good
Potassium Hydroxide (Caustic Potash) B-Good
Potassium Hypochlorite C1-Fair
Potassium Iodide A1-Excellent
Potassium Nitrate B-Good
Potassium Oxalate B-Good
Potassium Permanganate B1-Good
Potassium Sulfate B1-Good
Potassium Sulfide B-Good
Propane (liquefied) A-Excellent
Propylene B1-Good
Propylene Glycol B-Good
Pyridine A-Excellent
Pyrogallic Acid B2-Good
Resorcinal N/A
Rosins A1-Excellent
Rum A-Excellent
Rust Inhibitors A-Excellent
Salad Dressings A-Excellent
Salicylic Acid B2-Good
Salt Brine (NaCl saturated) B1-Good
Sea Water C-Fair
Shellac (Bleached) A-Excellent
Shellac (Orange) A-Excellent
Silicone A-Excellent
Silver Bromide D-Severe Effect
Silver Nitrate B-Good
Soap Solutions A-Excellent
Soda Ash (see Sodium Carbonate) A-Excellent
Sodium Acetate B-Good
Sodium Aluminate A-Excellent
Sodium Benzoate N/A
Sodium Bicarbonate A-Excellent
Sodium Bisulfate D-Severe Effect
Sodium Bisulfite B1-Good
Sodium Borate (Borax) B2-Good
Sodium Bromide C-Fair
Sodium Carbonate A-Excellent
Sodium Chlorate A-Excellent
Sodium Chloride B-Good
Sodium Chromate B1-Good
Sodium Cyanide A1-Excellent
Sodium Ferrocyanide B-Good
Sodium Fluoride D-Severe Effect
Sodium Hydrosulfite N/A
Sodium Hydroxide (20%) B-Good
Sodium Hydroxide (50%) B-Good
Sodium Hydroxide (80%) C-Fair
Sodium Hypochlorite (<20%) C-Fair
Sodium Hypochlorite (100%) D-Severe Effect
Sodium Hyposulfate A-Excellent
Sodium Metaphosphate A-Excellent
Sodium Metasilicate A-Excellent
Sodium Nitrate B1-Good
Sodium Perborate B-Good
Sodium Peroxide A-Excellent
Sodium Polyphosphate B-Good
Sodium Silicate A-Excellent
Sodium Sulfate B-Good
Sodium Sulfide B-Good
Sodium Sulfite B-Good
Sodium Tetraborate A2-Excellent
Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) A2-Excellent
Sorghum A-Excellent
Soy Sauce A-Excellent
Stannic Chloride D-Severe Effect
Stannic Fluoborate N/A
Stannous Chloride C2-Fair
Starch A-Excellent
Stearic Acid B-Good
Stoddard Solvent A-Excellent
Styrene A-Excellent
Sugar (Liquids) A-Excellent
Sulfate (Liquors) B-Good
Sulfur Chloride D-Severe Effect
Sulfur Dioxide D-Severe Effect
Sulfur Dioxide (dry) D-Severe Effect
Sulfur Hexafluoride N/A
Sulfur Trioxide A-Excellent
Sulfur Trioxide (dry) D-Severe Effect
Sulfuric Acid (<10%) D-Severe Effect
Sulfuric Acid (10-75%) D-Severe Effect
Sulfuric Acid (75-100%) C-Fair
Sulfuric Acid (cold concentrated) C-Fair
Sulfuric Acid (hot concentrated) D-Severe Effect
Sulfurous Acid B1-Good
Sulfuryl Chloride N/A
Tallow A-Excellent
Tannic Acid B1-Good
Tanning Liquors A2-Excellent
Tartaric Acid C2-Fair
Tetrachloroethane B-Good
Tetrachloroethylene N/A
Tetrahydrofuran A-Excellent
Tin Salts N/A
Toluene (Toluol) A-Excellent
Tomato Juice A-Excellent
Trichloroacetic Acid D-Severe Effect
Trichloroethane B-Good
Trichloroethylene B-Good
Trichloropropane A-Excellent
Tricresylphosphate B-Good
Triethylamine A-Excellent
Trisodium Phosphate B-Good
Turpentine A-Excellent
Urea B-Good
Uric Acid B-Good
Urine A-Excellent
Varnish A-Excellent
Vegetable Juice A-Excellent
Vinegar A-Excellent
Vinyl Acetate B-Good
Vinyl Chloride B2-Good
Water, Acid, Mine B-Good
Water, Deionized A1-Excellent
Water, Distilled A-Excellent
Water, Fresh A-Excellent
Water, Salt B-Good
Weed Killers A-Excellent
Whey A-Excellent
Whiskey & Wines A-Excellent
White Liquor (Pulp Mill) A-Excellent
White Water (Paper Mill) A-Excellent
Xylene B-Good
Zinc Chloride B-Good
Zinc Hydrosulfite A-Excellent
Zinc Sulfate B1-Good

Explanation of Footnotes
1. Satisfactory to 72°F (22°C)
2. Satisfactory to 120°F (48°C)

Ratings: Chemical Effect
A = Excellent.
B = Good, Minor Effect, slight corrosion or discoloration
C = Fair, Moderate Effect, not recommended for continuous use. Softening, loss of strength, or swelling may occur.
D = Severe Effect, not recommended for ANY use.
N/A = Information not available.

CAUTION: Variations in chemical behavior during handling due to factors such as temperature, pressure, and concentrations can cause equipment to fail, even though it passed an initial test.